Linux basic commands

pwd -> show the current working directory
ls -a -> show list of all files and folders (hidden also)
ls -l -> show list of all files and folders with their permissions

mkdir -> Make directory
rmdir -> Delete directory
rm -R -> Delete directory even if it is not empty

cd -> moves back to your home directory
cd .. -> moves back one directory
cd / -> moves to root directory of linux
cd ~ -> moves to home directory

touch file.txt -> create file
nano file.txt -> edit file with nano-editor
cat file.txt -> show the contents of a file
less file.txt -> show the contents of a file with scroll
mv file.txt new.txt -> rename filename
cp file.txt new.txt -> copy file
rm file.txt -> delete file
chmod -> is used to change the permissions of files or directories (example “chmod 754 myfile”)

which -> shows program or folder location
history -> show last 500 commands

ifconfig -> network info
iwconfig -> wireless info

top -> shows the top processes based on certain criterias like cpu usage or memory usage
df -> disk space

sudo apt-get install “program-name” -> install program
sudo apt-get remove “program-name” -> delete program
sudo apt-get update -> update all packages
sudo shutdown -h -> shutdown system (halt)
sudo shutdown -r -> restart system

CodeIgniter Session Error – Operation not Permitted

On some hostings you can receive this error.

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: unlink(/tmp/ci_session0189a7f1c86eb18fb70afcfedc2d5040e9c23146): Operation not permitted

Filename: drivers/Session_files_driver.php

To fix this go to application > config > config.php and edit this line:

$config['sess_save_path'] =  BASEPATH . 'cache/';

Laravel first steps

Hello, this article is for beginners and will show basic functions.

Installation of Laravel

To begin with instalation we need composer. In console write the following.

composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel NameOfTheProject

What is artisan

Artisan is the name of the command-line interface included with Laravel. It provides a number of helpful commands for your use while developing your application. It is driven by the powerful Symfony Console component.

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Laravel on shared hosting

I will show you not the fastest but easiest way to move Laravel project to shared hosting. You need to be sure that you are using PHP version >= 5.6.4.

First step

First connect to your FTP and create folder outside “public_html”. You can use any name but in this example I will use (“Laravel”) for the name of this folder.

Move everything except “public” folder from your Laravel project to your newly created folder on shared hosting. It will take some time!

In “public_html” folder you need to move files from “public” folder in your Laravel project.

Open index.php file and change the paths to autoload.php and app.php files. They should point to files in the Laravel folder.
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